An intriguing variety of topics have come up in the papers published in fitness, exercise, and nutrition science this past week. Running speed seems to be dictated by energy efficiency. Kids' health needs more attention post-lockdowns, and scientists investigated the role of the brain networks in weight loss, among other matters.
Humans run at the most energy-efficient speed, regardless of distance
As race season approaches, many runners have the same goal: go faster. But researchers now show that speeding up might require defying our natural biology. By combining data from runners monitored in a lab along with 37,000 runs recorded on wearable fitness trackers, scientists have found that humans' natural tendency is to run at a speed that conserves caloric loss -- something that racers seeking to shave time off their miles will have to overcome.
Source: Cell Press
Hype up fitness to support kids' health post-lockdowns, experts urge
As COVID-19 reaches record levels in the UK, health experts are calling for a focus on children's physical fitness as new research reveals concerning changes to children's health and physical fitness following the pandemic.
Source: University of South Australia
A novel therapy ameliorates obesity and Type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet
This therapy, using sustained release of nitric oxide, may be a novel, efficient and safe way to prevent and treat multiple metabolic diseases.
A novel therapy ameliorates obesity and Type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet. The therapy acts through sustained release of nitric oxide, a gaseous signaling chemical whose most important function in the body is relaxing the inner muscles of blood vessels.
Source: University of Alabama at Birmingham
Gut microbiome may alter response to cancer therapy
A new study captures the current understanding of the connection between the gut microbiome and therapeutic response to immunotherapy, chemotherapy, cancer surgery and more, pointing to ways that the microbiome could be targeted to improve treatment.
Source: Brigham and Women's Hospital
Controlling blood sugar may improve response to exercise training
Research suggests glucose-lowering drug may mitigate blood sugar-associated blunted response to aerobic training
Scientists sought to determine whether high blood glucose blunts the body's response to exercise and whether lowering it can restore the ability to improve aerobic capacity with training. The team's findings suggest that a combination of a glucose-lowering medication and exercise may work to improve exercise capacity in people with high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia.
Source: Joslin Diabetes Center
Reducing sedentary time mitigates the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases
A new study suggests that reducing daily sedentary time can have a positive effect on the risk factors of lifestyle diseases in only three months. Spending just one hour less sitting daily and increasing light physical activity can help in the prevention of these diseases.
Source: University of Turku
Not all dietary fibers are equal
The health benefits of dietary fiber vary across individuals and may depend on the specific type of fiber and the dose consumed, researchers report.
Source: Cell Press
New article outlines the characteristics of a 'longevity diet'
Review of research in animals and humans to identify how nutrition affects aging and healthy lifespan
In a new article, researchers describe the 'longevity diet,' a multi-pillar approach based on studies of various aspects of diet, from food composition and calorie intake to the length and frequency of fasting periods.
Source: University of Southern California
Brain networks can play role in weight-loss success
When it comes to weight loss, the old adage it's all in your head may be true. Scientists have shown that two specific networks in the brain can strongly influence how successful a person will be when trying to lose weight.
Source: Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Fungi-based meat alternatives to help save Earth's forests
Substituting 20 % of meat from cattle with microbial protein -- a meat alternative produced in fermentation tanks -- by 2050 could halve deforestation, a new analysis finds. The market-ready meat alternative is very similar in taste and texture, but is a biotech product which -- by replacing beef -- involves much less land resources and greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and land-use change. This goes under the assumption of a growing world population's increasing appetite for beefy bites, and it is the first time researchers have projected the development of these market-ready meat substitutes into the future, assessing their potential impact on the environment.
Source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
Diet type can increase potentially harmful gas in the gut
Scientists looked at colonic hydrogen sulfide -- a toxic gas in the body that smells like rotten eggs -- production in people in response to animal- and plant-based diet interventions.
Source: University of Minnesota Medical School
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