This week's science weekly is fully packed with studies from a wide range of areas of fitness, nutrition and sports science. From tech solutions for MS sufferers through scrutiny of sugar and processed meat to potential solution directions to obesity.
Here're the highlights:
Exoskeleton therapy improves mobility, cognition and brain connectivity in people with MS
A team of multiple sclerosis (MS) experts led a pilot randomized controlled trial of robotic-exoskeleton assisted exercise rehabilitation (REAER) effects on mobility, cognition, and brain connectivity in people with substantial MS-related disability. Their results showed that REAER is likely an effective intervention, and is a promising therapy for improving the lives of those with MS.
Source: Kessler Foundation
New research may explain why some people derive more benefits from exercise than others
A new study published led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) provides insights related to mechanistic links between physical fitness and overall health and the reasons why the same exercise can have different effects in different people.
Source: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Declining biodiversity in wild Amazon fisheries threatens human diet
Similar trends are seen around the world
A new study of dozens of wild fish species commonly consumed in the Peruvian Amazon says that people there could suffer major nutritional shortages if ongoing losses in fish biodiversity continue. Furthermore, the increasing use of aquaculture and other substitutes may not compensate.
Source: Earth Institute at Columbia University
Study ratifies link of processed meat to cardiovascular disease and early death
Link is with processed meat but not with unprocessed red meat or poultry
The information comes from the diets and health outcomes of 134,297 people from 21 countries spanning five continents, who were tracked by researchers for data on meat consumption and cardiovascular illnesses.
Source: McMaster University
Could excessive sugar intake contribute to aggressive behaviors, ADHD, bipolar disorder?
New peer-review paper looks at evolution and current Western diet to help explain manic behaviors
New research suggests that conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome (ADHD), bipolar disorder, and even aggressive behaviors may be linked with sugar intake, and that it may have an evolutionary basis.
Source: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
Junk food game helps people eat less and lose weight
Using a brain-training app helps people eat less junk food and lose weight, new research suggests.
Source: University of Exeter
It's never too early to begin healthy eating habits
New randomized trial shows promoting healthy guidelines result
Researchers found that when health workers were trained to promote infant healthy feeding practices to pregnant women their children consumed less fats and carbohydrates at 3 years of age and had lower measures of body fat at the age of 6. The study is the first to show that the roots for obesity start in the first year of life, after mothers stop breastfeeding.
Source: Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health
Overweight or obesity worsens liver-damaging effects of alcohol
The largest study of its kind has found people in the overweight or obese range who drink alcohol are at greater risk of liver disease and mortality.
Source: University of Sydney
Diabetes remission diet also lowers blood pressure and reduces need for medication
New research published in Diabetologia has shown that if people achieve and maintain substantial weight loss to manage their type 2 diabetes, many can also effectively control their high blood pressure and stop or cut down on their anti-hypertensive medication.
'Prescription' to sit less, move more advised for mildly high blood pressure and cholesterol
Physical activity is the optimal first treatment choice for adults with mild to moderately elevated blood pressure and blood cholesterol who otherwise have low heart disease risk. About 21% of adults in the US with mild to moderately raised blood pressure and 28-37% of those with mild to moderate elevated cholesterol levels may be best served by a prescription for lifestyle-only treatment, which includes increasing physical activity.
Source: American Heart Association
Gut to brain: Nerve cells detect what we eat
Nerve cells of the vagus nerve fulfill opposing tasks. The gut and the brain communicate with each other in order to adapt satiety and blood sugar levels during food consumption. The vagus nerve is an important communicator between these two organs. Researchers now took a closer look at the functions of the different nerve cells in the control center of the vagus nerve, and discovered something very surprising: although the nerve cells are located in the same control center, they innervate different regions of the gut and also differentially control satiety and blood sugar levels. This discovery could play an important role in the development of future therapeutic strategies against obesity and diabetes.
Healthy diet before, during pregnancy linked to lower complications
A healthy diet around the time of conception through the second trimester may reduce the risk of several common pregnancy complications, suggests a new study. Expectant women in the study who scored high on any of three measures of healthy eating had lower risks for gestational diabetes, pregnancy-related blood pressure disorders and preterm birth.
Source: NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
People who eat a healthy diet including whole fruits may be less likely to develop diabetes
Research links fruit but not fruit juice to lower type 2 diabetes risk
A new study finds people who consume two servings of fruit per day have 36% lower odds of developing type 2 diabetes than those who consume less than half a serving.
Source: The Endocrine Society
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